All posts by mmillard

December 9, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 115

Recent Publications and New Research

Abdelaaty, L. (2021). The relationship between human rights and refugee protection: an empirical analysis. The International Journal of Human Rights, 1-20. What is the relationship between a government’s respect for the rights of its own citizens and that government’s regard for refugee rights? On one hand, we may expect that a country with high human rights standards will also offer a higher quality of asylum. Domestic laws that protect citizens’ rights may be extended to refugees, for example. On the other hand, there are reasons to theorize that a country with high human rights standards may offer a lower quality of asylum. For instance, governments may claim that protecting citizens’ wellbeing necessitates the rejection of refugees. To explore these questions, the author analyses a global dataset drawn from reports by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. Abdelaaty finds that the relationship between citizens’ rights and refugee rights is modified by economic conditions and the size of the refugee population. Moreover, some domestic rights (like freedom of movement and labor rights) may increase protections for refugees, while others (like rule of law) may decrease them (50 free eprints).

Parent, N. (2021). Commitments to forced migrants in African peace agreements, 1990–2018. The International Journal of Human Rights, 1-20. This article presents data on peace agreement commitments towards forced migrants on the African continent (excluding MENA) from 1990 to 2018, resulting from the analysis of 177 peace agreements responding to the search queries ‘Africa (excl. MENA)’ and ‘refugees and displaced persons’ on the Peace Agreement Database (PA-X). The author presents preliminary results from four thematic categories: (1) return, reconstruction, rehabilitation, reintegration, and resettlement (5R), (2) provision commitments, (3) rights and law, and (4) land and property. Initial probing and statistical testing of the data revealed several trends. Notably, most 5R commitments were made towards the return of forced migrants. From twelve provision variables, physical protection was the most common provision commitment, followed by relief support. Where commitments to laws and rights related to forced migration remained relatively low, these results suggest that peace agreements in this region seldom take a rights-based approach to displacement. (50 open access copies).

Isabelle Lemay (2021), Theorizing the Life and Death of Moments of Openness toward Refugees in the Global North: The Case of Germany during the 2015–2016 Refugee “Crisis”, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the analysis of moments of openness toward refugees in the Global North. Four key types of representations and perceptions of the displaced are identified: deservingness, relatedness, perceived proximity, and connectedness to national identity. These representations and perceptions may enter policymaking through top-down and bottom-up mechanisms. This theoretical framework is applied to Germany’s response to the 2015–2016 refugee “crisis.” Findings highlight the fragility of some representational and perceptional registers and set the stage for a broader research agenda on the emergence, evolution, and decline of moments of openness toward refugees in the Global North.

From neighbourhood to arrival infrastructure? Hospitality areas in hostile times. Building Migrant Resilience in Cities (BMRC) Research Digest, Released November 22, 2021. Centraide launched the ‘Vivons nos quartiers’ initiative for more inclusive and welcoming neighbourhoods for refugees and immigrants. The objective was to concentrate on the neighbourhood as an area of hospitality in order to understand the reception dynamics starting from the vision that new immigrants have of the neighbourhood on their urban experience. What places do they like to frequent in their everyday life? Do these places vary according to their status on arrival (economic immigrant, refugee, asylum-seeker)? And with what types of social relations are these places associated? Two neighbourhoods receiving immigrants were studied: the borough of Saint-Laurent and the western sector of downtown, Peter-McGill, in Montréal.

Ellen Percy Kraly and Holly E. Reed (2021). New Demographic Directions in Forced Migrant and Refugee Research, The Journal on Migration and Human Security (JMHS), Volume 9 Issue 3. This special collection considers refugee resettlement and integration in the United States within the broader framework of the literature on migrant integration and reflects on the role that population research can play in promoting successful and healthy refugee resettlement in the United States. Articles in this special collection also explore the ethical challenges of forced migration research, humanitarian work with children and adolescents, the resilience of forced migrant communities, the value of computer modeling for human migration and health, demographic methods for estimating and forecasting migration, and research priorities for US refugees and refugee communities.

Briefs, Reports and working papers

Marie McAuliffe (ed.). World Migration Report 2022 International Organization for Migration. The International Organization for Migration, November 2021. The IOM launched its flagship World Migration Report 2022 which reveals a dramatic increase in internal displacement due to disasters, conflict and violence at a time when global mobility ground to a halt due to COVID-19 travel restrictions. The report, the eleventh in IOM’s World Migration Report series, draws upon the latest data from around the world to explain key migration trends as well as issues that are emerging on the migration policy horizon.

Jock Collins, Carol Reid, Dimitria Groutsis, Katherine Watson, Annika Kaabel & Stuart Hughes,  Settlement experiences of recently arrived refugees from Syria and Iraq in Victoria in 2018/19: Report #3, November 2021, University of Technology Sydney; Western Sydney University; University of Sydney. The present report is the third of three place-based reports on the outcomes of the first year of a three-year research project – funded by the Australian Research Council – examining the settlement, employment and education experiences and outcomes of recently-arrived Syrian, Iraqi and Afghan refugees. It is a longitudinal study: we have interviewed 248 refugee families – 131 Syrian, 84 Iraqi and 33 Afghan families – and surveyed 699 individuals settling in New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (Qld) and Victoria (Vic).

Delphine Nakache, Dagmar Soennecken, Christiana Sagay, Mélissa Mary Anderson, François Crépeau, Edit Frenyo, Zainab Mahmood, Anna Purkey & Rikita Tanotra, Vulner Policy Brief: Canada, European Policy Brief, September 2021. This first Canadian report draws solely on desk research findings. Some of the policy recommendations are subject to revision, following interviews with civil servants and practitioners. Others reflect long-standing issues in the Canadian context. The recommendations include: expanding the mandate of a ‘designated representative’ to all immigration proceedings; developing more consistent and fair oversight and appeal mechanisms to ensure that decision makers effectively and consistently rely on existing guidelines; and ensuring that training of decision-makers is closely followed by regular, transparent and publicly accessible monitoring and evaluation of the decisions being made.

Keith Neuman, Canadian public opinion about immigration and refugees: Final Report, Focus Canada, Environics Institute for Survey Research & Century Initiative, Environics Institute for Survey Research & Initiative du Siècle, October 22, 2021. As part of its Focus Canada public opinion research program (launched in 1976), the Environics Institute updated its research on Canadian attitudes about immigration and refugees. This survey was conducted in partnership with the Century Initiative. This survey is based on telephone interviews conducted (via landline and cellphones) with 2,000 Canadians between September 7 and 23, 2021. A sample of this size drawn from the population produces results accurate to within plus or minus 2.2 percentage points in 19 out of 20 samples.

News and blog posts

Katie Kuschminder, ‘We interviewed 150 women migrants – revealing how their journeys involve peril at every turn’, The Conversation, 27 November 2021. Experts have come together from the World Universities Network to work on a collaborative, storytelling project looking into women, migration and their stories of resilience. This article reflects on the news that seven women and three children were among the 27 people who tragically lost their lives in the English Channel on the eve of November 25, the international day for the elimination of violence against women.  

Adele Garnier, ‘The ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on refugee resettlement’, Asylum Insight, December 2021. This article puts Australia’s resettlement and COVID experience in context, investigating why the drop in resettlement has been comparatively sharp in Australia, briefly suggesting implications.

Kaamil Ahmed and Lorenzo Tondo, Fortress Europe: the millions spent on military-grade tech to deter refugees, The Guardian, December 6, 2021. This piece maps out the rising number of high-tech surveillance and deterrent systems facing asylum seekers along EU borders.

Rachel SilverContributors, S. Nombuso Dlamini and Nathan Englander, Travel bans expose continued enforcement of colonialism, December 3, 2021. This article argues that the latest Travel restrictions due to the Omicron variant are just the latest symptom of a colonial approach to COVID-19. The ban will devastate the region’s economy, while passengers from the U.K., Germany, Italy, Belgium and other countries where Omicron had been detected continue to fly.

November 25, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 114

BHER Speaker Series

Learn more and register here


Recent Publications and New Research

[Open Access] New Refuge issue: General Issue with Special Focus on Humanizing Studies of Refuge and Displacement, November 2021. The contributors to this forum examine the un/desirability and im/possibility of “humanizing” studies of refuge and displacement. All of the interventions address underlying epistemological and methodological approaches in refugee studies as central to addressing dehumanization in research. Collectively, the interventions in this forum urge us to engage reflexively in struggles to undo persistent indignity, marginalization, and violence towards refugees, as well as to people affected by both displacement and involuntary immobilities beyond this category.

[Open Access] Clark-Kazak, C. (2021). Ethics in Forced Migration Research: Taking Stock and Potential Ways Forward. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 9(3), 125-138. Migration research poses particular ethical challenges because of legal precarity, the criminalization and politicization of migration, and power asymmetries. This paper analyzes these challenges in relation to the ethical principles of voluntary, informed consent; protection of personal information; and minimizing harm. It shows how migration researchers — including those outside of academia — have attempted to address these ethical issues in their work, including through the recent adoption of a Code of Ethics (now available in French and Spanish) by the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM). However, gaps remain, particularly in relation to the intersection of procedural and relational ethics; specific ethical considerations of big data and macrocomparative analyses; localized meanings of ethics; and oversight of researchers collecting information outside of institutional ethics boards. The paper concludes with some recommendations to address arising ethical issues and challenges specific to Forced Migration research.

[Open Access] Lamis Abdelaaty, Refugees and Guesthood in Turkey, Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 34, Issue 3, 2021, p. 2827–2848. Even as Turkey took in over 3 million Syrians at great expense, Turkish officials were referring to these individuals as guests rather than refugees. Despite significant legal developments in the country, and particularly the formalization of a temporary-protection regime, this choice of labels reveals the influence of underlying political trends on Turkish policymaking regarding refugees. This article compares Turkey’s reactions to the Syrian inflow with its responses to previous refugee groups, including Iraqis in 1988, Bosnians in 1992, Kosovars in 1998 and Chechens starting 1999. In so doing, it demonstrates that the refusal to designate certain populations as asylum seekers or refugees enables Turkey to opt in or out of what might otherwise appear to be generally applicable, national-level policies. Through these strategic semantics, policymakers retain a freedom to manoeuvre in response to international and domestic political incentives.

[Open Access] Yousuf, B., & Berry, N. S. (2021). The Resettlement Experiences of Oromo Women Who Entered Canada as Refugees. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 37(2), 78–92. A growing body of literature shows that gender-based experiences produce different circumstances for men and women who become refugees and thereafter. This article sought to contribute to this literature by investigating the challenges faced by Oromo women who have immigrated to Canada as refugees. Toward this end, we interviewed six Oromo women in Western Canada regarding what led them to leave Ethiopia, their experiences as refugees seeking asylum, and their struggles with resettlement and integration. The findings reveal that Oromo women share the challenges endured by their male counterparts, but also are victim of gender-based subjugation at each stage of emigration.

[Open Access] Khan, Adrian A. 2021. Connecting Crises: Young People in Nepal Reflecting on Life Course Transitions and Trajectories during Times of Uncertainty. Social Sciences 10, no. 11: 439. Young people in displacement contexts often face the challenge of restrictions towards engaging their agency in migration decision-making processes. Through multi-sited ethnography throughout Nepal and in-depth interviews with 30 trans-Himalayan participants, this paper investigates multiple experiences of crises experienced by young people and the effects on their life course trajectories. From focusing on the Civil War in 1996–2006, the 2015 earthquake, and most recently the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper proposes that initial displacements from the Civil War, when connected with other crises later on in a participant’s life course, better prepared them to deal with crises and enabled them to create a landscape of resilience. Furthermore, a landscape of resilience that connects past and present life course experiences during crises prepared some participants for helping their larger communities alleviate certain crisis-related tension. Overall, connecting crises shaped their (im)mobility and life trajectories, rather than approaching crises as singular/isolated experiences.

[Open Access] FMR issue 68 now online – Externalisation / Mobility and agency in protracted displacement. Forced Migration Review issue 68 includes two features. In the main feature on Externalisation, authors examine the consequences for protection when States increasingly take action beyond their own borders to prevent the arrival of refugees and asylum seekers. A second feature focuses on Mobility and agency for those living in protracted displacement, produced in collaboration with the TRAFIG research project. FMR 68 is available in two formats: a magazine and a shorter Editors’ briefing

[Open Access] Megan Bradley (2021) Realising the Right of Return: Refugees’ Roles in Localising Norms and Socialising UNHCR, Geopolitics. Drawing on extensive material from the UNHCR archives on repatriation movements from Honduras to El Salvador in the 1980s, this article examines how refugees themselves have influenced the governance of return by serving as norm entrepreneurs, localising the right of return and socialising UNHCR to rethink and support broader interpretations of this principle. It analyzes how Salvadoran refugees envisioned the right of return as a collective and deeply political process of asserting citizenship claims, and took direct action to implement this right, compelling UNHCR and government actors to adjust to their vision. These experiences have important implications for understandings of the right of return as an international norm, and the roles of refugees themselves as actors in norm localisation and socialisation processes.

Reports, and Policy Briefs and Opinion Pieces

[Policy Paper] Naomi Alboim and Karen Cohl. (2021). Expanding Refugee Pathways to Canada: Strategies for welcoming Afghan and other refugees. Ryerson University CERC in Migration and Integration, Policy Paper No. 5. This paper recommends strategies for implementing the new Afghan programs and strengthening the impact of the Economic Mobility Pathways Pilot. It also recommends ways to keep refugee families together and to open up refugee pathways through educational opportunities. The recommendations build on the concept of complementary pathways for refugees, as embodied in section 3.3 of the Global Compact on Refugees. The Compact encourages member states to employ a range of pathways, over and above traditional government resettlement. As a member state with multiple pathways already in place, Canada is a leader in this regard, but more could be done to make the most of each pathway.”

[Brief] From Displacement to Development: How Kenya Can Create Shared Growth by Facilitating Economic Inclusion for Refugees, Refugees International, November 2021. This case study dives deep into refugee economic inclusion in Kenya. It lays out the profile of refugees and hosts in the country, describing the demographics of refugees and gaps in outcomes between refugees and hosts that result from barriers to economic inclusion. Next, it analyzes the main barriers to greater economic inclusion and  describes the benefits, for both refugees and hosts, of overcoming those barriers. The brief also offers recommendations for how to overcome the barriers.

[Report] Research and knowledge mobilization in the GTA’s immigrant and refugee-serving sector: A needs assessment, Wellesley Institute, November 15, 2021. This report provides an overview of the current landscape for research into migration, settlement, and immigration in the Greater Toronto Area, and offers recommendations for closing gaps, strengthening research relationships, and ensuring a solid base of knowledge and evidence for policy and practice among academics, policy-makers, and community organizations and service providers.

[Blog] Cristiano d’Orsi and Juan Pablo Serrano Frattali ‘The right to food and housing for Internally Displaced Persons in Colombia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): geographical distance does not forcibly mean different situations’, AfricLaw, November 2, 2021. In this piece, the authors  offer a legal and policy comparison between the present situation of IDPs in Colombia and in the Democratic Republic of Congo. If at the legal level Colombia has certainly a more complete framework for the protection of IDPs, loopholes and lacunae in the treatment of IDPs are still present in both countries.

Also on the RRN Radar:

Digital and social media

Refugee-Specific Locally-Engaged Refuge Research Network (LERRN) on-line training course. This 12-unit training program engages with the theory and practice of cross-cultural partnered fieldwork.  Units will be delivered through a series of pre-recorded lectures and supported by readings and other materials, with on-line discussions and assignments supported and moderated by a designated course facilitator. This training program will both equip emerging scholars with new research skills and foster critical reflection and dialogue among participants on these issues. The pilot program will run from the 10 January 2022 until 1 April 2022. Students will be asked to dedicate approximately 6 hours a week to the course. There is no fee for participating in the pilot offering of the course. Please direct any questions to Nimo Bokore ( and Amanda Klassen (

Recorded sessions from CARFMS21 now available on YouTube. The recorded sessions (where permissions have been released) from the CARFMS21 conference to the CARFMS YouTube Channel: CARFMS21: Utopias as Practices: Refugee Protection and The Coming Futures – YouTube.

November 11, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 113


Learn more and register here

Recent Publications and New Research

Van Haren, Ian and Claudia Masferrer (2021). Visitor Visa Policy Changes and Mexico-Canada Migration. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies. Although recent scholarship shows that restrictive visa policies curtail migration, research does not disaggregate policy effects within migration flows. This article analyzes Mexico-Canada migration when a travel visa was imposed in 2009 and removed in 2016. The imposition coincided with a dramatic decrease in travel and refugee claims. However, the number of Mexican immigrants grew, contrasting expectations of migration policy effectiveness research. The authors suggest that future research should disaggregate effects of policy changes, consider a state’s broader approach to migration policy, and examine how subnational programs and number of legal migration pathways influence trends of mixed migration flows [The link includes 50 open-access copies].

Lawlor, A., & Paquet, M. (2021). Deservingness in context: perspectives toward refugees and asylum seekers in CanadaJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-21. This article explores the conditions under which Canadians are willing to provide the right to stay and access to migrant-specific services to refugees and asylum seekers in Canada. Taking into consideration the institutional and policy specificities of Canada’s immigration regime, the analysis suggests that refugees and asylum seekers are evaluated as qualitatively different groups by the Canadian public. Consequently, the authors propose that economic cues and deservingness cues should have different influences on the evaluation of these two groups. Using a survey experiment, this article finds that economic cues play a role in the evaluation of refugees and that humanitarian needs are central to Canadians’ evaluation of asylum seekers. These results demonstrate the need to take national and institutional contexts into account when considering attitudes towards vulnerable migrant groups and, in particular, deservingness evaluations of these groups.

New open access issue: Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso (ed.) (2021). Migration and Refugee Flows: New Insights. Politics and Governance 9 (4). Population movements between countries and continents are not recent phenomena. What is new today is that migration flows are increasingly linked to the globalization process and to environmental degradation. Most of the migrants leave their homes for economic reasons, but also due to the higher frequency of natural disasters. Of the total migrant population, those who escape from conflicts or persecution still represent a smaller fraction and are entitled to obtain refugee status. This thematic issue includes eight articles that analyse migration flows and migration governance from different analytical perspectives. Five of the eight contributions examine the role that several factors play in explaining international migration flows and its effects, namely cultural diversity, information technology tools, governance, terrorism, and attitudes towards immigration. The remaining three articles are country studies that analyse the socio-economic causes/effects of migration flows to Portugal, Spain, and Germany, devoting special attention to forced migration and refugees.

Chowdhory, N., & Poyil, S. T. (2021). Speaking the language of the ‘other’: negotiating cultural boundaries through language in chitmahals in Indo-Bangladesh borders. Citizenship Studies, 1-17. Borders are not merely assertions of sovereign territorial demarcations, but indicative of cultural boundaries. This article discusses how the India-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement (2015) led to reorganisation of territorial boundaries, whereby the inhabitants had the choice of citizenship between India and Bangladesh that reaffirmed their identity. The subjective differentiation between ‘us’ and ‘them’ was negotiated by various cultural elements such as Bangla language, an everyday language symbolizing membership in the constituting communities, kinship and citizenship in the nation. Language was an important attribute that identified them as ‘Bengali’/‘Bangladeshi’ while navigating the trans-territorial national identity. While arguing that the new citizens’ construction of ‘acts of citizenship’ was based on a linguistic identity and everyday languages made claims to citizenship possible, the paper also explores: how does language help negotiate the cultural boundaries of ‘us’ or ‘them’ in post Land Border Agreement? How has language (re)shaped identity towards attainment of citizenship?

Salam, Z., Nouvet, E., & Schwartz, L. (2021). Reflections of methodological and ethical challenges in conducting research during COVID-19 involving resettled refugee youth in CanadaJournal of Medical Ethics. This article reflects on the ethical and methodological challenges encountered when conducting qualitative research during the pandemic with Syrian migrant youth who are resettled in Canada. The three areas discussed from the study are recruitment, informed consent and managing the interviews. Special attention to culture as being part of the study’s methodology as an active reflexive process is also highlighted. The goal of this article is to contribute to the growing understanding of complexities of conducting research during COVID-19 with populations which have layered vulnerabilities, such as migrant youth. This article hopes that the reflections may help future researchers in conducting their research during this pandemic by being cognizant of both the ethical and methodological challenges discussed


Reports, and Policy Briefs and Opinion Pieces

[Brief] Dire Consequences: Addressing the Humanitarian Fallout from Myanmar’s Coup, Refugees International (October 2021). Nine months have passed since the coup in Myanmar, and the country’s humanitarian outlook is increasingly dire. Amid the throes of the COVID-19 pandemic and a growing economic crisis, the military junta’s crackdown on dissent has resulted in the killing of more than 1,100 civilians and the forcible displacement of more than 200,000 people and has left an estimated 3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. This brief details the current situation in Myanmar and the complex geo-political dynamics hampering much-needed action, and recommends steps Myanmar’s neighbors, ASEAN countries, donor countries, and the United States must take to address the crisis and provided aid and safety to those in need.

[Report] No Shelter from the Storm: The Urgent Need to Recognise and Protect Climate Refugees, Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) – October 2021. Since 2008, weather-related hazards have displaced over 21 million people each year on average. This figure does not include those forced to leave home due to slow-onset climate impacts, such as desertification and sea level rise. Most of the world’s climate refugees come from vulnerable communities in lower-income countries, where environmental degradation and climate change intersects with and exacerbates other stressors such as poverty, oppression, and conflict. The current international protection regime does not meet the needs of climate refugees. There remains a deficit of adequate legal and policy frameworks governing climate-induced displacement at the international level. The report includes recommendations and urges the international community to urgently work together to protect climate refugees by mitigating global heating through rapid decarbonisation action and developing protections for those already affected by climate change.

[Opinion] From Dadaab to Mogadishu, and Back Again?  A Somali Refugee’s Journey by Abdirahman Ahmed Aden, The New Humanitarian – October 20, 2021. After living in a refugee camp for most of his life, Abdirahman Ahmed Aden returned to Somalia, his country of origin. He has a job as a journalist and filmmaker, but he is afraid to leave his home because of the violence. “[W]hat I didn’t bargain for were the bombings, the shootings, the unpredictability of the violence here,” Aden said. “I will never get used to the fear and the violence.” When he can earn enough money, Aden plans to return to Dadaab, the refugee camp in northeastern Kenya where he grew up. He writes that he never felt at home in the refugee camp. Instead, he always felt that it was a “transient” place — refugees waiting to be either repatriated or resettled.

[Policy paper] Seizing the opportunity for a coherent refugee policy! Recommendations for the protection of Afghans on various levels of governance, by Petra Bendel, Johanna Günther, Raphaela Schweiger, Janina Stürner-Siovitz. This report presents policy recommendations for action in 21 key messages for decision-makers at different governance levels: (1) the international level, (2) the EU level, (3) the level of the German federal government and (4) the levels of the German Länder and municipalities. It highlights both short- and medium-term prospects, whereby there are also opportunities for overlap in the interest of coherent approaches. In the face of general concern, helplessness and incoherent policy approaches, the aim of this policy paper is to identify initial solutions and to make proposals for addressing the Afghan refugee situation at various levels of governance.

[Special issue] LERRN success stories, October 2021. The Local Engagement Refugee Research Network is a community of researchers and practitioners, committed to promoting protection and solutions, with and for refugees. LERRN is pleased to present this special issue of our Newsletter featuring Success Stories from the first half of the Partnership, 2018 to 2021. This report showcases the accomplishments of the network since its launch in 2018. Now at its halfway point, LERRN is excited to share some of the many successes of their researchers, students, and refugee partners.

October 21, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 112


Learn more and register here

Recent Publications and New Research

Istaiteyeh, Rasha (2020): The Impact of COVID-19 on Syrian Refugees in Jordan. World Refugee & Migration Council (WRMC). Research Paper. This report analyzes the economic implications of COVID-19 for the Jordanian economy, including its diverse economic sectors and, most importantly, on its levels of poverty and inequality. It also surveys Jordan’s policies toward Syrian refugees, including provision of Executive Summary 6 health, education and other essential services, as well as the impact on the livelihoods of Syrian refugees in Jordan. The report also considers the important question of whether present and future international assistance can mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the Jordanian economy and specifically on the ability of Jordan to continue hosting Syrian refugees

Fallah, B., Istaiteyeh, R., & Mansur, Y. (2021). Moving Beyond Humanitarian Assistance. World Refugee & Migration Council Research Report, September 2021.This study, conducted by three economists in the region — Belal Fallah, Rasha Istaiteyeh and Yusuf Mansur — analyzes the impact of Syrian refugees on Jordan’s economy and suggests ways that the international community can receive more international support. The first section of the study, written by Belal Fallah, analyzes the characteristics of Syrian refugees and their impact on the Jordanian economy. In the second section of the study, Rasha Istaiteyeh assesses the possibilities for Syrian refugees to find solutions for providing economic opportunities for Syrian refugees. Yusuf Mansur, in the third section of this report, begins by analyzing the international assistance received by Jordan from 2012–2019 and the impact of the Syrian refugees on aid inflows.

Khasalamwa-Mwandha, S. (2021). Local Integration as a Durable Solution? Negotiating Socioeconomic Spaces between Refugees and Host Communities in Rural Northern Uganda. Sustainability 13(19). With a growing number of displaced people, there is a need for robust approaches to coping with displacement. Uganda has a progressive refugee policy that promotes freedom of movement and the socioeconomic rights of the refugees. Specifically, refugees are often allocated land to settle and cultivate rural settlements, and the integrated social service provision facilitates interaction with host communities. However, there remain challenges in creating sustainable livelihoods for refugees in rural settlements. There exist significant tensions over shared resources such as land, water, woodlots, and grazing areas. Based on a survey of 416 households and key informant interviews with South Sudanese refugees in selected settlements in the Adjumani district, the paper highlights refugees’ access to social and economic spaces as critical pathways to sustainable livelihoods and integration. Uganda’s progressive policy expands the opportunity space; however, refugees still encounter significant barriers in accessing the socioeconomic spaces.

Reports, and Policy Briefs and Opinion Pieces

New Report: Intentional Connections for Welcoming Communities Improving Settlement for Privately Sponsored Refugees in Ontario through Settlement-Sponsor Collaboration. Allies for Refugee Integration, 2021. Allies for Refugee Integration has been about dreaming of a future where privately sponsored refugees have a consistent and smooth settlement journey in Canada. With the support of hundreds of stakeholders and dozens of partnerships. From 2018 to 2021, ARI and its partners focused on creating more welcoming communities for privately sponsored refugees. Project partners, OCASI and Refugee 613 had both observed gaps in knowledge, relationship and operations between private sponsors and the formal settlement sector; gaps that often become cracks that negatively affected the settlement journey of refugees. The aim of this report is to generate and test adjustments to the user experience for both settlement workers and sponsors, with the goal of improving access to support for refugees.

New Report: “I Didn’t Feel Like a Human in There” Immigration Detention in Canada and its Impact on Mental Healthv, Human Rights watch, 2021. Despite its reputation as a refugee-welcoming and multicultural country, Canada incarcerates thousands of people on immigration-related grounds every year, including people who are fleeing persecution, those seeking employment and a better life, and people who have lived in Canada since childhood. Figures from the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) reveal that the number of immigration detainees incarcerated in Canada has increased every fiscal year between 2016-17 and 2019-20, peaking in fiscal year 2019-20 with a total of 8,825 people in immigration detention. For many detainees, not knowing how long they will be detained causes trauma, distress, and a sense of powerlessness. Detention can exacerbate existing psychosocial disabilities and frequently triggers new ones, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. The authors expose the mental health effects of the Canadian detention system and recommend the gradual abolition of Immigration detention in Canada. The report is available in a report format as well as a public education document.

 Petra Molnar, ‘Inside new refugee camp like a ‘prison’: Greece and other countries prioritize surveillance over human rights’, The Conversation. 28 September 2021. During her visit to Samos, Molnar was told about refugees being intercepted by Greek authorities without being given the opportunity to claim refugee protection or even speak to a lawyer. Without these opportunities, they are often returned to Turkey.This practice is known as “pushbacks” or “interceptions at sea,” where boats of people seeking refugee protection are returned to Turkish waters by Greek and European authorities without being allowed to claim asylum. This process is facilitated by various surveillance technologies. Read more.

Mandy Hughes, Barbara Rugendyke and Louise Whitaker, ‘‘It’s given me love’: connecting women from refugee backgrounds with communities through art’, The Conversation, 4 October 2021. Women from Afghanistan, Myanmar, Syria, Iraq and other countries are settling in regional Australian communities. Adjusting to life in a new home involves facing many challenges — but finding a sense of belonging can help the settlement process.For those who have experienced trauma, including women from refugee backgrounds, creative arts can enhance well-being, improve social connections and promote a sense of belonging. Connecting through creativity also builds bridges, addressing fears of newcomers and communities around refugee settlement. Read more.

 Robert Falconer, ‘Why Joe Biden should emulate Canada and go big on private refugee resettlement’, The Conversation, 12 October 2021. As attention turns from the evacuation of Afghanistan to the arrival of refugees, U.S. President Joe Biden has an opportunity for large-scale engagement of the American public in a deeply personal fashion. If Canada’s history is any indicator, the capacity of private American citizens to resettle refugees is large and untapped. It may even bridge the divide over immigration in the United States. Read more.

Caitlin Katsiaficas (2021). Investing in refugee talent. International Centre for Migration Policy Development. 13 October 2021. In the ’global race for talent,’ countries are seeking to attract the best and brightest – and often look to international students as a significant source of future talent. Meanwhile, universities, student groups, and other stakeholders are increasingly spearheading initiatives to support the enrolment of refugee students through scholarship and sponsorship programmes. This commentary argues that teaming up to thoughtfully incorporate international refugee students into European talent management initiatives can be a win-win. Read more.

New Blog: Cristiano d’Orsi, Analysing access to healthcare for refugees and migrants (“mixed migrants”) in South Africa and Kenya: protective laws and progressive policies clashing with daily reality, Refugee Law Initiative, October 18, 2021. In this blog, the author analyses whether discrimination is permitted, whether it happens anyway, and what could be done to combat intolerance against refugees and migrants in South Africa and Kenya in terms of their access to healthcare in these host countries. He chose these two countries because they are among the African countries with the longest history of hosting aliens. Read more.

Online Resources and Social Media

Watch virtual panel: research launch: thinking long-term about syrian refugees in jordan, lebanon and turkey (September 9, 2021), World Refugee and Migration Council. This panel discussion to launch the three reports and hear firsthand from the researchers about the economic impact of the refugees on the three countries and their recommendations for mobilizing additional international support.

Researching Internal Displacement: This platform connects researchers, practitioners, policymakers, students, artists and people from displacement-affected communities with cutting-edge research, analysis, creative materials and events on internal displacement. The site features working papersblog posts, and many other resources to showcase and push forward new research. We welcome your contributions too!  

Internal Displacement, Conflict and Protection: This is a free six-week online training course that provides your staff, counterparts and the general public with a comprehensive introduction to key issues in this field. These resources respond to the UN High-Level Panel on Internal Displacement call to strengthen ‘effective use of internal displacement data and analysis’.  

October 7, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 111

Recent Publications and New Research

Olivera Simic, ‘Locked in and locked out: A migrant woman’s reflection on life in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic‘, The Journal of International Women’s Studies, September 2021. This open access paper offers personal and lived experience reflections on life in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The author reflects on what it means for a migrant woman with a complex traumatic past to be indefinitely stranded. She also draws on experiences of other migrant women living in Australia during the pandemic. The reflection brings attention to personal narratives that contribute to the growing importance of women’s herstories. With this narrative, the author wants to pay tribute to migrant women’s lives and by using her own experiences as a case study to reflect on personal struggles that the COVID-19 pandemic triggered. The issues of trauma, forcible separation, and economic migration are explored.

Danisi, C, Dustin, M, Ferreira, N and Held, N (2021). Queering asylum in Europe: legal and social experiences of seeking international protection on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. IMISCOE Research Series. Springer, Cham. This two-volume open-access book offers a theoretically and empirically-grounded portrayal of the experiences of people claiming international protection in Europe on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI). It shows how European asylum systems might and should treat asylum claims based on people’s SOGI in a fairer, more humane way. Through a combined comparative, interdisciplinary (socio-legal), human rights, feminist, queer and intersectional approach, this book examines not only the legal experiences of people claiming asylum on grounds of their SOGI, but also their social experiences outside the asylum decision-making framework.

Anczyk, A., & Grzymała-Moszczyńska, H. (2021). The Psychology of Migration: facing cultural and religious diversity (pp. 1-103). Brill. This book forms an introduction into new or emerging discipline of “psychology of migration,” which is an interdisciplinary field of research, joining together diverse subfields of psychology (cultural psychology, social psychology, environmental psychology, health & clinical psychology, psychology of religion and spirituality) with anthropological, sociological and historical inquiry on migration processes (usually named “migration studies”).  

Derya Ozkul & Rita Jarrous (2021) How do refugees navigate the UNHCR’s bureaucracy? The role of rumours in accessing humanitarian aid and resettlement, Third World Quarterly.  In conflict situations, rapid changes can occur in the conditions in both host and home countries. In the context of such uncertainty, how do refugees navigate the bureaucratic apparatus of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to obtain humanitarian aid and resettlement? In this open access article, the authors carried out fieldwork in 2019 in Lebanon and found the UNHCR’s bureaucracy to be a ‘black box’ for refugees in relation to the provision of information on humanitarian aid and resettlement. In this context of limited information, they found that rumours – widely considered to be uncertain truths – contributed to shaping participants’ understanding of the UNHCR’s decisions on the provision of aid and resettlement. They highlight the interpretive aspect of rumours and argue that refugees engage in interpretive labour as a result of the unequal relationship between themselves and the UNHCR’s opaque bureaucracy and provision of information.

Silas W. Allard, Kristin E. Heyer, and Raj Nadella, eds. (2022). Christianity and the Law of Migration, Routledge. This collection brings together legal scholars and Christian theologians for an interdisciplinary conversation responding to the challenges of global migration. Gathering 14 leading scholars from both law and Christian theology, the book covers legal perspectives, theological perspectives, and key concepts in migration studies. In Part 1, scholars of migration law and policy discuss the legal landscape of migration at both the domestic and international level. In Part 2, Christian theologians, ethicists, and biblical scholars draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to think about migration. In Part 3, each chapter is co-authored by a scholar of law and a scholar of Christian theology, who bring their respective resources and perspectives into conversation on key themes within migration studies. 

Reports, Policy Briefs and Blogposts

[Brief] Less than a Lifeline: Challenges to the COVAX Humanitarian Buffer, Refugees international, September 20, 2021. The United States hosted a “Global COVID-19 Summit: Ending the Pandemic and Building Back Better” on the margins of this year’s United National General Assembly. Refugees International released “Less than a Lifeline: Challenges to the COVAX Humanitarian Buffer,” a brief outlining steps the major stakeholders in the global COVID-19 vaccination effort need to take to help ensure that the Humanitarian Buffer can get vaccines to the world’s most vulnerable populations.  

[Brief] The case for treating long-term urban IDPs as city residents, by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), September 2021. The briefing draws on the experiences of city mayors from six countries – Burkina Faso, Colombia, Honduras, Iraq, Somalia and Ukraine. They show that IDPs who flee to urban areas often stay for many years and are most likely to end up living in informal housing in low-income parts of the city. The report found international NGOs and multilateral agencies often side-step municipal authorities to work directly with IDPs and the communities hosting them to provide short-term, project-based assistance. This leaves local authorities without the technical and financial help to continue providing essential services to all residents, sometimes in situations where populations have multiplied many times over. 

[Report] Migration and vulnerability in the pandemic, Doctors of the World, June 2021. This report on migration and vulnerability during the pandemic in the UK was produced as part of the University of Birmingham Vulnerable Migrants’ Wellbeing Project led by Professor Jenny Phillimore and Laurence Lessary-Phillips (and funded by the Nuffield Foundation and ESRC IAA). The report, which shows significant unmet healthcare needs and deep digital divide in migrant patients during first wave of the pandemic, draws on Doctors of the World’s anonymized service users’ data at the height of the first wave of the pandemic.

[Opinion piece] Brazil’s Successful Refugee Policies: A Model for the World by Mariam Kazmi, Borgen Magazine, September 15, 2021. Although Brazil does not take in large amounts of refugees when compared to countries such as Turkey and Pakistan, its refugee population has been rapidly growing over the years. For example, the country hosted around 10,260 refugees in 2017. Brazil also has one of the largest refugee populations in Latin America. Such massive growth and responsibility forced Brazil’s government to take immediate and effective action that allows refugees to resettle in the country. Today, it is evident that Brazil’s successful refugee policies have had a positive impact on thousands of families over the years. Mariam Kazmi explores the features of this success.  

[Opinion piece] Wildfire and flood disasters are causing ‘climate migration’ within Canada, The conversation, September 20, 2021. The release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) sixth assessment report confirmed our worst fears about human-induced climate change. The report predicts a worst-case scenario of 4.5 C warming by 2100. Climate change is already affecting every region on earth and the changes are expected to be widespread, rapid and intensifying. The results of the IPCC assessment likely have many Canadians asking, what does this mean for Canada? Yvonnes Su, York University and CRS affiliate expands on this question.

Digital and Social Media

[Infographic] “No Safe Place”: Documenting the migration status and employment conditions of workers in Alberta’s meatpacking industry during the pandemic, Migrant Dignity Project – Report to the Community, by Bronwyn Bragg, August 2021. Check out CRS Postdoctoral researcher Dr. Bronwyn Bragg’s infographic along with a 6-page executive summary created with Action Dignity, a community organization in AB, a partner with Bragg and CRS Professor Jennifer Hyndman on a SSHRC PEG grant. The figures emphasize the remarkable number of racialized resettled former refugees working in the meatpacking industry in Alberta. They represent 2.5% of the Alberta population, but make up 18% of workers in meatpacking in often rural settings. Temporary Foreign Workers were also canvassed for the research at two of the biggest meatpacking plants in Southern AB.

[Podcast] Leaving Place, Restoring Home: Enhancing the Evidence Base on Planned Relocation Cases in the context of Hazards, Disasters, and Climate Change, March 2021. In this podcast, Kaldor Centre affiliates Erica Bower and Sanjula Weerasinghe discuss their latest report with Lauren Martin. The report, called ‘Leaving Place, Restoring Home’, was commissioned by the Kaldor Centre and the Platform on Disaster Displacement, with a global dataset of more than 300 planned relocation cases. 

Sept 16, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 110

Recent Publications and New Research

Van Haren, I. (2021). Canada’s private sponsorship model represents a complementary pathway for refugee resettlement. Migration Information Source.  This article explains who can be sponsored in Canada’s Privately Sponsored Refugee (PSR) program, with a focus on how different types of sponsorship applications (including those supported by a Sponsorship Agreement Holder, Group of Five, or Community Sponsor) are assessed by government officials before sent overseas for processing. The article presents statistics on the number of applications approved in each PSR stream in the last ten years. The article also discusses a brief history of refugee resettlement to Canada and discusses how the selection process for refugees impacts integration outcomes, particularly when comparing refugees selected by the UNHCR versus those selected by Canadian sponsors.

Bryant, R., & Hatay, M. (2021). Performing Peace: Vernacular Reconciliation and the Diplomacy of Return in CyprusJournal of Refugee Studies, 34(1), p. 46–66. In the Cyprus conflict, more than 200,000 Cypriots were displaced between 1958 and 1974. However, lost in this standard narrative are the conflict’s other ‘Others’: the smaller Maronite, Armenian, Latin, and Roma populations, who also experienced displacement in the course of the conflict. This paper concerns the Maronite community’s struggle to remain or return to their historical lands in the island’s northwest. The authors examine the acts of everyday diplomacy that, over the past decade, have resulted in a revival of the largest Maronite village, removal of restrictions on their rights, and most recently, the partial withdrawal of the Turkish military from another Maronite village so that it may be reopened to settlement. The authors term these as ‘vernacular reconciliation’, ways of rebuilding coexistence that suspend questions of sovereignty that remain at the heart of the Cyprus impasse. They argue that this pragmatic approach calls on cultural knowledge of past patterns of coexistence through performances that, in turn, produce deeply felt senses of responsibility and patterns of reciprocity. 

Bradley, M. (2021) Joining the UN Family? Explaining the Evolution of IOM-UN Relations, Global Governance 27(2). The International Organization for Migration (IOM) became a related organization in the United Nations system in 2016, and has rebranded itself as the “UN Migration Agency.” This article examines the drivers and significance of IOM’s new relationship with the UN. It traces the evolution of the IOM-UN relationship, and the processes that led to IOM becoming a related organization. While some contend that IOM is still not part of the UN system, through an analysis of the status and political positioning of related organizations, this article demonstrates that, as a related organization, IOM is indeed now part of the UN system. It argues that IOM’s work with forced migrants in the humanitarian sector played a pivotal role in enabling this shift and considers its implications. 

Tastsoglou, E., Petrinioti, X., & Karagiannopoulou, C. (2021). The Gender-Based Violence and Precarity Nexus: Asylum-Seeking Women in the Eastern Mediterranean. Frontiers in Human Dynamics3. The Gender-Based Violence and Precarity Nexus: Asylum-Seeking Women in the Eastern Mediterranean. Frontiers in Human Dynamics, 3. This paper derives from a larger study on gender-based violence and precarity in the forced migration journeys of asylum-seeking women transiting through the Eastern Mediterranean route and arriving in Greece, in the tumultuous, second decade of the 21st century. The authors discuss the opinions and information gathered through semi-structured interviews with twenty key informants: service providers, international and national NGOs staff, local government staff, and public officials. The findings locate the five points/loci in irregular cross-border movements and arrival at an EU member-state where precarity interweaves with gender-based violence. While adopting a feminist and intersectional approach, the analysis shows that violence and precarity are co-constituted and reinforce each other by undermining the citizenship status of asylum seekers and the inscription, on their bodies and lives, of unequal gendered social and institutional power relations.

Grayson, C.L. (2021). Children of the Camp: The Lives of Somali Youth Raised in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya. Berghahn Books. Based on in-depth fieldwork, this book explores the experience of Somalis who grew up in Kakuma refugee camp, in Kenya, and are now young adults. This original study carefully considers how young people perceive their living environment and how growing up in exile structures their view of the past and their country of origin, and the future and its possibilities. The introduction can be read here. If you would like to consider this book for possible course adoption, an electronic inspection copy can be requested here. 

Special Issue: Martel, A., Reilly-King, F., & Baruah, B. (Eds.). (2021). Next Generation of knowledge partnerships for global development. Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d’études du développement,42(3), 253-273. The Next Generation programme, which underpins this special issue, presented an opportunity to address knowledge gaps in the current ecosystem of academic-civil society organization (CSO) collaborations, producing new research presented in this issue. Between 2016 and 2019, the NextGen Program sought to test and foster different ways and models of facilitating cross-sectoral collaboration between academics and CSOs in Canada. This special issue takes a reflexive approach to present key lessons and findings from cross-sectoral collaborations in the global development sector. Forced migration studies can draw on the lessons from the development studies to better nurture a conducive knowledge partnership ecosystem. 

Krause, U., & Segadlo, N. (2021). Conflict, Displacement … and Peace? Critical Review of Research Debates. Refugee Survey Quarterly. This article examines debates about conflict, displacement, and peace based on a semi-systematic review of research published between 1980 and 2020. The review leads to the identification of three main strands that are closely connected: the structural links outlining how conflicts contribute to displacements; the various prevailing risks of violence; and the individual and collective strategies of displaced people to cope with dangers and experiences, especially in host countries and regions. Despite this broad and still-growing body of literature, peace has been insufficiently addressed in debates thus far. Only a few studies attend to peace, and they mainly connect it to return to places of origin, peace(building) education by aid actors, or partly displaced people being potential destabilisers of peace processes. Hence, the roles of peace and displaced people’s practices to support peace constitute vital areas requiring further research going forwards. 

Reports, Policy Briefs and Blogposts

Final Report: York University Syria Response and Refugee Initiative (SRRI), by John Carlaw. Centre for Refugee Studies, York University. Sparked by the renewed interest in refugee sponsorship due to the crisis in Afghanistan, the CRS published the final report of York’s Syria Response and Refugee Initiative on its website. From Fall 2015 until the end of April 2019, the initiative led York’s participation in the Pan-GTA Ryerson University Lifeline Syria Challenge (RULSC) to sponsor Syrian refugees. In addition, it helped educate, mobilize and work with York students to promote awareness and become engaged in refugee issues on campus and with the wider community. In July 2019, the completed Final Report on the project included many lessons learned concerning refugee sponsorship and student engagement in the university context. It also included discussions and links to many of the activities and overall approaches taken.

Putting Home at the Heart of Refugee Resettlement, by Ray Silvius, Hani Ataan Al-Ubeady & Emily Halldorson, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, July 8, 2021. The culmination of a 5-year study based on interviews with recently arrived former refugees finds that securing good housing is a key part of successful settlement. However, a tight rental housing market, insufficient financial support, and a limited supply of public housing means many are barely making ends meet, making resettlement challenging. This report brings into focus the need for adequate housing in Winnipeg and how it positively contributes to the multitude of settlement needs in the first years after arrival. 

The road from refugee to resident: How working with displaced people can help create more inclusive and sustainable cities, by Lucy Earle. International Institute for Environment and Development. June 18, 2021. Internally displaced people (IDPs) is a less recognized population that shares many of the experiences of refugees. This article addresses how towns and cities could respond better to the arrival of IDP and refugee populations. The authors believe that working with refugees and IDPs can lead to more inclusive and sustainable cities. The choice for local, national, and international actors is to perpetuate uncertainty and exclusion or include displaced people in planning better and more sustainable urban futures for all. To conclude, the authors aim to provide some of the crucial data needed to take positive action. 

Report: After the Airlift: Protection for Afghan Refugees and Those Who Remain at Risk in Afghanistan, by Hardin Lang, Sarah Miller, Daphne Panayotatos, Yael Schacher, and Eric Schwartz. Refugees International, September 8, 2021. The execution of the troop withdrawal and the Taliban’s seizure of power has created substantial risks of severe reprisals for hundreds of thousands of Afghans. The situation inside Afghanistan remains highly unstable, and ongoing civil conflict is a real prospect. The Taliban have a long history of committing systematic, widespread, and egregious violations of human rights. Despite public statements suggesting a more moderate stance, there have been credible reports of grave violations of human rights by Taliban elements in recent weeks in many parts of Afghanistan. New risks come amidst an existing humanitarian crisis driven by conflict, drought, and the COVID-19 pandemic. And half of the population requires humanitarian aid. 

Digital and Social Media

New Podcast: Refuge, Launched by The Child and Youth Refugee Research Coalition (CYRRC) and hosted by Israel Ekanem of Halifax-based Ubuntu Media. This podcast brings together youth, researchers, and service providers to discuss critical issues affecting Canada’s refugee children, youth, and families. It offers a space for essential conversations across sectors, spaces, and people. In this podcast, guests delve into social integration, employment, mental health, language acquisition, and schooling for an in-depth look at how young refugees are settling in Canada. CYRRC hopes to appeal to service providers, educators, community groups, and anyone interested to learn more about supporting newcomers in Canada. 

Statelessness Case Law Database launched by the European Network on Statelessness. Stateless people often find themselves stranded on the margins of society, denied many of the fundamental rights that most people take for granted. The database aims to support legal practitioners, policy makers, institutions, researchers & civil society across Europe by providing a platform for comparative legal analysis and knowledge sharing. It is the first database to focus on case law addressing statelessness specifically. Moreover, it includes easy to search and filter case summaries from across Europe.  

Animation: The Story of Migration aims to tell the complex story of the relationship between migration and global inequalities. The animation, illustrated by Karrie Fransman, is based on a script written with Migration for Development and Equity’s (MIDEQ) partners in 11 countries in the Global South and challenges many of the ideas that currently dominate media representations of migration. The animation engages a wide range of audiences in MIDEQ’s work and highlights the importance of understanding global migration from the perspectives of those living and working in the Global South. The full animation can be found in six languages, English, Tamil, Portuguese, Malay, French and Mandarin, with more videos being released in the coming months.

June 17, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 109

Recent Publications and New Research

Dennler, K.T. (2021). Uncertain future, unsettled present: suspending and embracing engagement with life among newcomers in Toronto, CanadaJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Canada’s current immigration policies are marked by growing reliance on temporary and conditional migration and increased processing times for immigration applications. More people spend long periods living in Canada with deportability and therefore uncertainty about the future. Based on qualitative research among newcomers in Toronto, Canada, this article examines the temporalities of living with uncertainty, attending to how experiences of and responses to uncertainty are dynamic across time. The article identifies two salient responses among research participants, either suspending or embracing engagement with life in Canada. Each of these responses entails risks, making both suspending and embracing difficult to sustain. This article shows that regimes of immigration control foreclose access to rights and supports based on formal immigration status and hollow out the value of permitted activities.

Khan, Adrian A. (2021).  Embodied circular migration: lived experiences of education and work of Nepalese children and youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 1-17. Research including trans-Himalayan children and youth experiences of circular migration is often amalgamated under broader migration discourses. From 22 semi-structured interviews and three focus group sessions with 22 trans-Himalayan children/youth, this paper examines intersections of embodiment, agency, and circular migration in Nepal through what this paper frames as embodied circular migration. The paper outlines how young people’s agency towards choosing to engage in circular migration for work, circumvented structural challenges of not having identity documents (citizenship/birth certificates) needed to legally work or pursue higher studies in Kathmandu.

Mousin, C.B. (2021). Constantine’s Legacy: Preserving Empire while Undermining International Law. In P. Slotte & J.D. Haskell (Eds.), Christianity and International Law (pp. 366-94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thou shall not return a refugee to persecution. Nation-states declared they had learned that critical lesson from the tragedy of the Holocaust by enacting international refugee conventions and protocols. Today, as refugees seek safety, they find fortress-like liberal democracies building walls of steel interlaced with legal strategies that undermine the international protections forged from the fires of the Holocaust. Consequently, refugees drown in the Mediterranean, die in the Mexico-United States desert, become detained in overcrowded refugee camps and unofficial street shelters, or become victims of criminal gangs. Nation-states have all too often abdicated their responsibility to refugees. This chapter explores this interlocking struggle between Christian hospitality toward the outsider and Christian refusal to offer that hospitality in support of national security.

S.W. Allard. (2021). Hopelessly Practicing Law: Asylum Seekers, Advocates, and Hostile Jurisdictions. In P. Slotte & J.D. Haskell (Eds.), Christianity and International Law (pp. 366-94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. What does it mean to practice public international law? This is a frequent topic of conversation for many who work with law students inspired to study the law and pursue legal vocations believing that peace, justice, and human rights may be best advanced through the international legal framework. However, as many students often discover, that framework can be deeply frustrating. From its heavily bureaucratic structure anchored in the United Nations (UN) system to the unresolved tension between individuals and states as actors in and beneficiaries of international law, public international law can often seem as much an obstacle as a means to their virtue. This chapter examines the ethic of praxis in public international law by examining an often-overlooked area of international legal practice: refugee and asylum law.

Costello, C., Foster, M., & McAdam, J. (Eds.). (2021). The Oxford Handbook of International Refugee Law. Oxford University Press.  This handbook provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive analysis of the field of international refugee law. It is global in scope, with ten chapters focusing on specific regions, including Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Middle East. It examines a wide range of legal instruments relevant to refugee protection, including international human rights law, international humanitarian law, international migration law, the law of the sea, and international and transnational criminal law. Finally, it critiques the status quo and sets the agenda for future academic research.

Reports, Policy Briefs and Blogposts

Report: From Silos to Solutions: Toward Sustainable and Equitable Hybrid Service Delivery in the Immigrant & Refugee-Serving Sector in Canada, by Jungzhou Liu, Cansu Dedeoglu & Marco Campana. AMSSA, Strengthening Diversity in BC. This final report of the Settlement Sector and Technology Task Group presents findings and insights generated through a comprehensive exploration of hybrid service delivery over six months in the immigrant settlement sector in Canada. The six main recommendations of the report are: develop a roadmap to support organizational digital transformation; establish a common and sector-wide vision for digital literacy; establish a hybrid settlement service delivery lead at IRCC; establish baseline sector competencies; establish a national sector capacity-building approach; and ensure sector nuances are taken into account.

Report: Intentional Connections for Welcoming Communities: Improving Settlement for Privately Sponsored Refugees in Ontario through Settlement-Sponsor Collaboration. Allies for Refugee Integration; a partnership of OCASI and Refugee 613, May, 2021. This final report explores the findings and recommendations from the pilots tested across Ontario to improve settlement-sponsor collaboration in support of privately sponsored refugees.

Policy Brief: Addressing the Legacy of Expedited Removal: Border Procedures and Alternatives for Reform By Yael Schacher, Refugee International, May 13, 2021. Expedited removal has been justified as a means to promote efficiency in asylum processing. Yet over the last decade, when large numbers of families have come to the border to seek refuge, expedited removal has proven highly inefficient. On February 2, 2021, President Biden issued Executive Order 14010 on creating a comprehensive regional framework. The Order suggests implementing expedited removal in a more efficient way and respectful of due process. For reasons described in this brief, it is highly questionable that such a system will prove to be fair or even effective and workable. Thus, this issue brief suggests alternative ways the United States can have a fair and efficient system that better fulfills its obligation to provide access to protection at the border. A different reception system at the border is essential for a new, comprehensive, protection-oriented approach to migration from Central America.

Digital and Social Media

Inspirational Creative Practice: The Work of Artists after War and Violent Conflict (INSPIRE) is a research project that studies the role of artists and creative practice in and after violent conflict. The project is hosted by the Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) and connected to the PRIO Centre on Culture and Violent Conflict (CCC). Working with artists and activists in Myanmar and Sudan, and exiled artists in four European countries (France, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland), we explore what motivates those engaged in creative practice and how artistic expressions inspire others into action for social justice.

May 27, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 108

Recent Publications and New Research

Hyndman, J., Reynolds, J., Yousuf, B., Purkey, A., Demoz, D. & Sherrell, K. (2021) Sustaining the Private Sponsorship of Resettled Refugees in Canada. Frontiers in Human Dynamics, (3). Based on an original qualitative study, this paper probes how voluntary sponsorship has been sustained over decades, despite the high personal and financial costs it entails, by analyzing the insights of those who have experienced sponsorship: former refugees who came through the program, long-term sponsors, key informants, and other community leaders. The authors argue that private refugee sponsorship is a community practice, a routine activity that is part of a collective commitment, a way of connecting local community actions to global politics of injustice and displacement. Furthermore, refugee newcomers, who land in Canada as permanent residents become part of the communities and society they stay in. Having left family members behind in refugee camps and cities of refuge, many become sponsors themselves. This phenomenon of ‘family linked’ sponsorship is a defining and sustaining feature of the program, motivating family members in Canada to team up with seasoned sponsors to ‘do more’.

d’Orsi, C. (2021). Migrant Smuggling in Africa: Challenges Yet to Be Overcome. African Journal of Legal Studies, 1–30. This paper focuses on the plight of the smuggling of migrants in Africa. Migrant smuggling has been documented along at least five major and several more minor routes in Africa. This study investigates whether current legislation and policies are effective in curbing the practice of smuggling in Africa. To evaluate the success rate of these measures, the author compares figures over recent years to establish whether there has been a decrease in the number of migrants smuggled throughout the various regions of the continent. The author argues that migration can be better managed, but it cannot be stopped. In this framework, in Africa, the current migration policies and cooperation efforts intended to eradicate the practice of smuggling of migrants have given mixed results.

Weima Y, Minca C. (2021). Closing Camps. Progress in Human Geography. Refugee camp geographies vary greatly; however, the most fleeting informal camps and decades-old institutional settlements have in common that they are meant to be temporary. While research on camps has been attentive to their spatialities, relatively little work has focused on closures. However, the authors consider the permanent possibility of closure as a constitutive element of life-in-the-camp. Closures, then, must be situated within the exclusionary landscapes in which states manage migrants’ custody, protection, and displacement. We accordingly present camp closures as manifestations of sovereign power and the study of camp afterlives as key to critical understandings of camp geographies.

Betts, A. (2021). The Wealth of Refugees: How Displaced People Can Build Economies. Oxford University Press. This book draws upon a decade of original qualitative and quantitative research to offer practical solutions. Focusing on refugees in camps and cities in Africa, it identifies approaches that can effectively improve the welfare of refugees, increase social cohesion between refugees and host communities, and reduce the need for onward migration. The book argues that the key lies in unlocking the potential contributions of refugees themselves. Refugees bring skills, talents, and aspirations and can be a benefit rather than a burden to receiving societies. Realizing this potential relies upon moving beyond a purely humanitarian focus to fully include refugees in host-country economies, build economic opportunities in refugee-hosting regions, and navigate the ambiguous politics of refugee protection.

Spencer, S., Charsley, K. (2021). Reframing ‘integration’: acknowledging and addressing five core critiques. Comparative Migration Studies, (9)18. Empirical and theoretical insights from the rich body of research on ‘integration’ in migration studies have increased recognition of its complexity. Among European scholars, however, there remains no consensus on how integration should be defined nor what the processes entail. Integration has, moreover, been the subject of powerful academic critiques, some decrying any further use of the concept. This paper argues that it is both necessary and possible to address each of the five core critiques on which recent criticism has focused: normativity; negative objectification of migrants as ‘other’; outdated imaginary of society; methodological nationalism; and a narrow focus on migrants in the factors shaping integration processes. The authors define integration and provide a revised heuristic model of the integration process and the ‘effectors’ shown to shape them and contribute to a constructive debate on how these challenges for empirical research can be overcome.

Reports, Policy Briefs and Blogposts

Report: Mosler Vidal, E. (2021). Leave No Migrant Behind: The 2030 Agenda and Data Disaggregation, International Organization for Migration (IOM), Geneva. In order to leave no one behind, migrants must be considered across efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Meanwhile, migrants are also key actors in sustainable development. Migrants around the world make vital contributions to help progress the SDGs, whether these focus on offering high-quality health care, boosting household income or increasing productivity in destination economies. The objective of this guide is to provide user-centric guidance on disaggregation of SDG indicators by migratory status. It is aimed at practitioners across governments, international organizations or other actors who work with migration and/or SDG data. The guide is intended to help practitioners at any stage of the disaggregation process.

Migrants forced to wait four years for benefits in Australian budget’s biggest cost-cutting measure by Paul Karp, May 11, 2021, The Guardian. New migrants to Australia will be forced to wait four years before they can access government benefits under a Coalition plan to save $671m. The cost-cutting measure will affect 13,200 future migrants and 45,000 families, with carers and parents to be hit the hardest, while $464.7m will go to expanding immigration detention

What’s behind the UK’s harsh post-Brexit asylum overhaul? By Andrew Connelly, May 11, 2021, The New Humanitarian. In March, the United Kingdom (UK) introduced more than 40 suggested changes to the country’s asylum rules. UNHCR states that, if implemented, the UK’s plan would undermine the 1951 Refugee Convention and the global refugee protection system. The changes ostensibly target “the business model of smugglers,” but favour refugees arriving through legal routes while punishing those who arrive through irregular routes. Rights groups point out that regular routes often do not exist for asylum seekers and they argue that the UK proposal is a “smokescreen” to create a restrictive asylum system.

Digital and Social Media

12-week long Certificate Course on the Rohingya Crisis hosted by Center for Peace Studies (CPS) under South Asian Institute of Policy and Governance (SIPG) of North South University (NSU) in partnership with the Human Rights Practice Program at the University of Arizona, starting on June 19, 2021. This course will help participants better understand the Rohingya crisis, gain knowledge on the context and geopolitics around the crisis, and critically analyze the national, bilateral, regional and global politics and policies related to the crisis. If you are a student or professional (teachers, diplomats, journalists, NGO workers, etc.) and would like to expand your knowledge about the Rohingya crisis and seek careers in the humanitarian/ development field, learn more here.

May 13, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 107

Recent Publications and New Research

Biorklund Belliveau, L., & Ferguson, R. (2021). Normalising the Exceptional: The Use of Temporary Protection in Transit Countries to Externalise Borders and ResponsibilitiesGeopolitics, 1-31. Temporary protection is increasingly presented as a ‘novel approach’ to displaced people that have crossed an international border as it can provide a level of protection and access to basic social services for a defined period. This paper calls into question the objectives of such measures by highlighting the geopolitical context in which they operate. The authors argue that while temporary arrangements, particularly in so-called ‘transit’ countries, may address the humanitarian needs of displaced people, they also embed precarity and temporality into protection norms. Combined with policies that externalize migration management, they risk normalising the exclusion of individuals from avenues to permanent protection in a country that they feel safe.

Papadopoulos, R.K. (2021). Involuntary Dislocation. Home, Trauma, Resilience and Adversity-Activated Development. London and New York: Routledge. This book identifies involuntary dislocation as a distinct phenomenon, challenging existing assumptions and established positions, and explores its linguistic, historical, and cultural contexts. The author elaborates on key themes, including home, identity, nostalgic disorientation, the victim, and trauma, providing an in-depth understanding of each contributing factor while emphasizing the human experience throughout. This book concludes by articulating an approach to conceptualizing and working with people who have experienced adversities engendered by involuntary dislocation, and with a reflection on the language of repair and renewal.

Bakardjieva, M. (2020). “Say It Loud, Say It Clear…”: Concerting solidarity in the Canadian Refugees Welcome Movement (2015–2016). Canadian Review of Sociology, 57(4), 632–655. This article reports the results of a multimethod case study that seeks to explain how collective action frames emerged in the Canadian Refugees Welcome Movement context. The author explores which actors were involved in their articulation, how they generated a following and collective action, and the humanitarian and political effect. The focus is on the discursive processes of construction of solidarity across differences as they unfolded in the social media environment. The author argues that the Facebook event pages calling for rallies in support of Syrian refugees served as a discursive space that helped transform the moral shock experienced by members of distinct communities into the construction of solidarity and collective action across differences.

Tastsoglou, E. (2021). Twenty-First Century “New” Greek Transnational Migration to CanadaJournal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 1-14. This article derives from a qualitative study of the “new” migration from Greece to Canada, resulting from a severe socioeconomic crisis in Greece. Starting from the migration narratives of 20 “new” Greek migrants in Halifax and Toronto, this research focuses on how the “new” migrants make and carry out the decision to leave and immigrate to Canada. A heuristic use and reconceptualized understanding of the classic “push-pull” model, in conjunction with a transnational migration perspective, allows mapping out, through rich qualitative data, the structure—agency articulation in the “out-of-Greece-and-into-Canada” mobility of 21st century “new” Greek migrants.

Reports, Policy Briefs and Blogposts

Issue Brief: A Crisis of Care: Sexual and Reproductive Health Competes for Attention Amid Conflict and Displacement in Mali, Devon Cone and Alexander Lamarche, April 15, 2021, Refugees International. National healthcare systems rarely prioritize sexual and reproductive health (SRH), posing a challenge for women and girls worldwide, including in Mali. There, nearly a decade of conflict has created a protracted humanitarian crisis, decimating the healthcare system and limiting the availability of SRH services. Meanwhile, political uncertainty following a coup in August 2020 has focused international efforts on addressing security and stabilization, at the expense of humanitarian needs. The lack of donor funding has exacerbated the situation, including the dearth of SRH services. The challenges are particularly pressing for women and girls who have been forcibly displaced by conflict and instability.

Expert report: Access to Documents by Eritrean Refugees in the Context of Family Reunification, Sara Palacios Arapiles and Daniel R. Mekonnen, Equal Rights Beyond Borders and the International Refugee Assistance Project (IRAP). This report is concerned with challenges experienced by Eritrean refugees in Europe in the context of family reunification processes, specifically those relating to strict documentary requirements demanded by some EU Member States, in particular Germany. The report shows that these requirements often hinder the effectiveness of the right to family reunification. Further, such requirements pose unnecessary risks, often placing Eritrean refugees, and their relatives in Eritrea, at serious risk.

Recognizing the role of religious groups in refugee sponsorship by Geoffrey Cameron, Policy Options, March 31, 2021. This article outlines the key role of religious groups in private refugee sponsorship in Canada. The author briefly explains how Canada developed private refugee sponsorship; at the centre of this story is the creative and humanitarian role played by religious groups and coalitions. Religious groups continue to be leading actors within Canada’s resettlement programs, and the government must recognize their role to understand Canada’s humanitarian potential.

Digital and Social Media

RRN Webinar Series: Localizing Knowledge Production: Shifting power in forced migration studies, In collaboration with the Local Engagement Refugee Research Network (LERRN), April 20, 2021. Drawing on the results of a review of forced displacement research centres based in the global South and interviews with their directors, the speakers discussed ways to shift from focusing on research partnerships to an approach that supports the localization of knowledge production in refugee and forced migration studies. View the recording here.

LERRN-IDRC Webinar: Forced displacement and health in the context of the pandemic: Localized responses to COVID- 19’s impact on refugees, IDPs, and communities living in chronic displacement – May 20, 2021, 9:00-10:30AM. This webinar will examine what the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic reveals about how health systems respond to the health needs of the forcibly displaced and how social, cultural and economic factors and power relations shape responses. Drawing on lessons from Bangladesh, Syria, and Palestine, it will consider how localized actors and approaches can identify areas of innovation to improve access and health outcomes for refugees, IDPs and other forcibly displaced people. Learn more and register here.

Resource: Ethical Considerations in Research with People in Situations of Forced Migration, Canadian Council for Refugees. Your Rights in Research page on the CCR website has been updated to include the following languages:

April 21, 2021: RRN Research Digest

The RRN Research Digest provides a synopsis of recent research on refugee and forced migration issues from entities associated with the RRN and others.

You can download the digest in PDF format here: RRN Research Digest No. 106

Recent Publications and New Research

Tosh, S.R., Berg, U.D., & León, K.S. (2021). Migrant Detention and COVID-19: Pandemic Responses in Four New Jersey Detention Centers. Journal on Migration and Human Security. This article examines the relationship between COVID-19 and processes of migrant detention and deportation through a case study of New Jersey — an early epicenter of the pandemic and part of the broader New York City metro area. Drawing on publicly available reports and in-depth interviews with wardens, immigration lawyers, advocates, and former detainees, the authors describe the initial COVID-19 response in four detention facilities in New Jersey. The findings suggest that migrant detention and deportation present distinct challenges that undermine attempts to contain the spread of COVID-19.

Bottomley, B. (2021) NGO strategies for sex and gender-based violence protection and accountability in long-term displacement settings: Reviewing women’s participation in humanitarian programmes in Dadaab refugee complex [Working paper]. This article addresses the intersection between non-governmental organization (NGO) protection strategies for sex and gender-based violence in long-term displacement settings and recent discourse on humanitarian accountability practice. The author concludes that NGOs must adopt a more comprehensive system of gender mainstreaming across the humanitarian sector, to ensure that participatory approaches to protection from sex and gender-based violence in long-term displacement settings prioritise gender equality as a substantive objective.

Masterson, D., & Yasenov, V. (2019). Does halting refugee resettlement reduce crime? Evidence from the United States refugee ban.  American Political Science Review, 1-8. Many countries have reduced refugee admissions in recent years, in part due to fears that refugees and asylum seekers increase crime rates and pose a national security risk. Existing research presents ambiguous expectations about the consequences of refugee resettlement on crime. The authors leverage a natural experiment in the United States, where an Executive Order by the president in January 2017 halted refugee resettlement. This policy change was sudden and significant—it resulted in the lowest number of refugees resettled on US soil since 1977 and a 66% drop in resettlement from 2016 to 2017. The findings suggest that there is no discernible effect on the county-level property or violent crime rates.

Schammann, H., Gluns, D., Heimann, C., et. al. (2021). Defining and transforming local migration policies: A conceptual approach backed by evidence from Germany. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. This article explores the factors that drive municipalities to become active in the field of migration and migration-related diversity. Based on qualitative data from 126 German municipalities, this article proposes a new conceptual framework that allows for larger-scale comparisons and enables theory building on policy (in)activity at the local level. The authors discuss various theoretical approaches and empirical findings from the literature by using a heuristic of four categories of factors: institutional framework (e.g. competencies, discretionary spaces, multilevel governance), structural conditions (e.g. urbanity/rurality, socioeconomic conditions); local discourses (i.e. narratives creating a local space of possibilities), and local key actors (e.g. mayors, street-level bureaucrats).  

Reports, Policy Briefs and Blogposts

Supporting Canada’s COVID-19 Resilience and Recovery Through Robust Immigration Policy and Programs by Victoria Esses, An RSC Policy Briefing, March 2021. This report provides recommendations for action by the federal and provincial/territorial governments designed to optimize immigration to Canada. Broadly, these include a public education program on immigration, expanded pathways to permanence for temporary residents, targeted policies and programs that address the needs of vulnerable permanent and temporary resident groups and special consideration of Francophone immigration.

The Humanitarian Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Venezuelans in Peru, One Year In by Rachel Schmidtke & Anatali Oquendo Lorduy. Refugees International, April 2021. This report bears witness to the lives and challenges of Venezuelans in Peru, surviving displacement and the pandemic. The authors recommend concrete steps to alleviate the obstacles facing Venezuelans in Peru. Specifically, for the Government of Peru to expand legal residency for Venezuelans; for Peruvian civil society to increase their own outreach and collaboration with Venezuelan-led groups; and the Peruvian government and international donors to commit to vaccinating Venezuelans alongside Peruvians.  

The Human Rights Situation of Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China, Report of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development. House of Common – Canada, March 2021. This report is divided into three chapters. Chapter one provides a historical overview of the Uyghurs, including their presence in Xinjiang (formerly known as East Turkestan), the Government of the PRC’s evolving approach to the region, and the link with its increasingly violent efforts to repress Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims. Chapter two outlines the different ways in which the Government of the PRC is repressing Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang. Finally, Chapter three outlines why the Subcommittee is confident that the treatment of Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang meets the definition of genocide under the Genocide Convention. It also considers Canada’s international obligations under the convention and addresses crimes against humanity in Xinjiang.

Accountability to Affected Populations in Displacement Contexts and During the Covid-19 Pandemic by Diana Martin. Refugee Law Initiative (School of Advanced Study, University of London) in collaboration with the International Rescue Committee, London, 2021. During the pandemic, the RLI has undertaken a real-time evaluation of the impact of Covid-19 on IRC Uganda’s humanitarian response and accountability to affected populations. While the report focuses on IRC Uganda’s application of Client Responsiveness during the Covid-19 pandemic, key findings and lessons are relevant and applicable to other IRC country programs, as well as other humanitarian organizations. The report shows how humanitarian organizations can be accountable to the communities they serve even during a pandemic when engagement between humanitarian staff and affected populations is heavily restricted due to lockdown regulations.

Gruber, M. & Zupan, K. (Eds.) (2021): Report on existing integration-political goals, programs and strategies in the European Union and the MATILDE countries and rural regions.This reportpresents an overview of existing integration-political goals, programs and strategies at different governance levels: the European Union level, the national level represented by the ten MATILDE countries – Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Turkey and the United Kingdom, the regional level analyses based on the MATILDE rural case study regions, as well as the local level of these ten countries. Hence, this report aims to analyze the desired goals and guiding principles in the governance of migration and integration politics. The chapters include historical highlights since the 1990s impacting the further development of integration political goals and strategies.

It’s Time to Recognize Climate Refugees by Keith Lema. International Policy Digest, April 6, 2021. Through a flurry of executive action and appointments in his first 100 days, President Biden is restoring U.S. leadership on both climate change and refugee resettlement. Addressing climate change today will save lives, property, and money in the long run. Accepting more refugees will enhance America’s moral leadership while reinvigorating American communities with new, hardworking members. The author argues that President Biden should go further: He should recognize that climate change drives the need for refugee resettlement.

Digital and Social Media

RRN webinar recording: Emerging BHER Scholars: Establishing a Refugee Research Agenda in Dadaab. March 31, 2021. The speakers in this webinar addressed the importance of ongoing research in and on Dadaab. The overarching theme was the barriers to inclusivity in education in the Dadaab refugee camp, and was addressed by Dadaab scholars with specific reference to their research in progress.