The impacts of climate change are likely to affect population distribution and mobility. While alarmist predictions of massive flows of refugees are not supported by past experiences of responses to droughts and extreme weather events, predictions for future migration flows are tentative at best. What we do know is that mobility and migration are key responses to environmental and non-environmental transformations and pressures. They should therefore be a central element of strategies of adaptation to climate change. This requires a radical change in policy makers perceptions of migration as a problem and a better understanding of the role of local and national institutions in supporting and accommodating mobility.