In October 1999 Amnesty International published a report The forgotten resisters: the plight of conscientious objectors to military service after the conflict in Kosovo (AI Index: EUR 70/111/99). The report described the fate of those who disobeyed the FRY leadership by failing to answer call-up or deserting their units. Despite calls by NATO states encouraging Yugoslav soldiers or reservists to desert, those men who did so at great personal risk to themselves now find themselves with little protection either inside the FRY or in the countries – mostly NATO member states – where they have sought sanctuary. This report updates the earlier report with more information on conscientious objectors seeking protection abroad, the situation of those who have remained in the FRY and the relevant legal issues. It also makes further recommendations to the FRY and other governments.