The practice of torture, and the existence of conditions amounting to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment have persisted in Thai detention centres and prisons for many years. Torture and ill-treatment during and shortly after arrest are ongoing concerns to Amnesty International. Abuses take place in various locations, including police stations, at the site of the arrest, and in unofficial detention centres. Criminal suspects who are poor or members of ethnic minorities appear to be most at risk. Refugees who are outside of camps and migrant workers arrested for ”illegal immigration” are equally vulnerable. Agents of such practices include the police and the army.